Abstract: Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide despite tremendous advances in treatment. The promise of precision oncology depends on accurate characterization of tumor mutations and subsequent therapy selection. The lack of tumor reference samples along with the associated next generation sequencing (NGS) technical assessments has hindered the development of NGS assays and the realization of benefits for precision oncology. The summarized results and recommendations of several seminal SEQC2 studies along with a vision of the changing landscape of precision oncology and anticipated next steps by the SEQC2 consortium are reported. Importantly, these studies utilized a new robust reference sample material which was developed and constructed to support multiple DNA and RNA-based NGS assay studies. These studies focused on a wide variety of precision oncology assay scenarios and provided guidelines for standardized analyses and best practice recommendations. The evolving landscape of precision oncology requires insights into critical factors supporting the sensitivity and reproducibility of clinical NGS assays for continued improvement in patient outcomes. Persistent development of robust reference materials, quantitative performance metrics, and actionable data analysis recommendations are needed. This series of SEQC2 studies serve to advance NGS-based assays for precision oncology and support regulatory science endeavors.